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Boats sailing back to Gyoutoku

Eight Views in the Neighbourhood of Edo
Yedo Kinko Hakkei-no Uchi

Date: originally published privately in 1837-1838 for the Taihaido poetry club by Sanoya Kihei, this is from an early 20th century edition printed from recarved woodblocks
Size: oban, approx.14.75" x 10"
Condition: VG, no flaws of note
Impression: VG, solid key lines, tight registration, and surface texture
Color: VG, deep saturated color
Provenance: from the Robert O. Muller estate

Two fishing-boats with large striped sails and other boats returning to harbor at Gyoutoku, with a bright yellow sunset as a backdrop.

Hiroshige was born in old Edo (present-day Tokyo) in 1797, during the latter part of the Edo period (1603-1868). He was the son of Andou Gen'emon, a fire watchman in the famed Edo Fire Brigade. His childhood name, Tokutaro, was changed to Juemon upon reaching adulthood, and changed again when he was fifty to Tokubei. Hiroshige was his "studio surname", bestowed upon him by his painting master Toyohiro when young Hiroshige was fifteen and had just entered his master's school. Hiroshige was orphaned in his twelfth year and succeeded to his father's post as fireman, studying painting all the while. For fourteen years, until he was twenty-six, he was both fireman and painting apprentice. In 1823, he gave up his fire brigade duties, passing them on to his brother Nakajiro, and devoted himself full time to painting. At the age of eleven he produced a picture, Ryukyuans in Edo which attracted attention. He aspired to enter the studio of the noted actor-portrait painter Toyokuni, but there were no vacancies in that currently fashionable school and Hiroshige had to be satisfied with studying at the studio of the less famous, less sought-after, Toyohiro. This turned out to be fortunate; had he studied under Toyokuni, he undoubtedly would have become just another portrait painter. Studying under the more versatile Toyohiro, Hiroshige became interested in landscape painting, a field which had no popular appeal at the time.

Despite the fact that landscapes were not in demand, and, furthermore, were not lucrative, Hiroshige did not go with the popular current of the time, but assiduously pursued the landscape. In 1831, he produced a popular series, Famous Places in Edo, under the name Ichiyusai. He later also used the name Ichiryusai and Ryusai in addition to Hiroshige. His fame increased when, two years later he painted, and Hoeideo, the publisher, printed, the notable series Fifty-three Stages on the Tokaido. He had traveled the length of the Tokaido highway the previous year as a member of the retinue taking a tribute of horses from the Shogun in Edo to the Emperor in Kyoto. This was on the occasion of an anniversary of the first Shogun's entry into the Castle of Edo. Along the way on this journey, he sketched the scene which he later put into the fifty-five prints which made up this famous series portraying the official fifty-three post stations on the route. The series was revolutionary in its departure from the classic tradition in landscape painting. His scenes had a naturalness and sense of immediacy about them that provoked instant popular appeal. This established him as "the painter of Tokaido scenes" and, subsequently, he produced some 30 similar series on the same theme. The first Fifty-three Stages on the Tokaido series was the masterpiece, and has since become known as the Hoeido edition after the publishing house that printed the complete series of fifty-five pictures. This effort, incidentally, was to have been a cooperative venture between both Hoeido and another publisher, Senkakudo, but the latter withdrew before production was completed.

Hiroshige was at the height of his artistic ability from around 1834 to 1840; his art was then at peak of its popularity. During this period he produced the famous Eight Scenes of Omi, Famous Scenes of Kyoto, Eight Scenes in the Outskirts of Edo and the Sixty-nine Stages on the Kiso Highway, among many others. A bit later he produced his well-known series Famous Views of the Sixty-odd Provinces and the One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. In his declining years, in addition to landscapes, Hiroshige created an unique style in depicting birds and flowers and left many remarkable prints in the kacho-e genre. Through his lyrical expression of nature, and the elements reflected in his gently romantic lifestyle, Hiroshige brought Japanese landscape painting to its zenith. He died on September 9, 1858 at the age of 62.

Robert O. Muller’s love affair with Japanese prints began one day in the 1930s, when as a student in New York City he spotted a Hasui in a gallery window, and immediately arranged to purchase the print. Later, as a newly wed in 1940 he went on a print shopping tour to Japan with his wife where he met the shin hanga publisher Watanabe Shozaburo and Watanabe’s stable of artists including: Kawase Hasui, Shiro Kasamatsu, and Ito Shinsui. He also met and befriended Hiroshi Yoshida.

After WWII, Muller continued to deal in Japanese prints, but he was also an avid collector with a keen eye for good art. Although the Muller Collection is best known for shin hanga, Mr. Muller also collected late nineteenth century prints and good reproductions of famous Edo masters.

When Mr. Muller passed away on April 10, 2003, he had left possibly the largest and finest collection of 20th century Japanese prints in the world, and the question of what would become of his notorious collection was a major topic among Japanese print collectors. The finest 20th century prints from his collection were given as a gift to the Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C., and an exhibit was mounted. Other portions of the collection were sold at auction and still more remains with his heirs. Several books have been published about the collection.

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